Kerzin Certification: NGC XF Details 4444602-010 Facing heads of Nicholas II on left and Michael I of Russia. Rowned imperial double eagle with scepter and orb. Michael I of Russia (Russian : , Mikhail Fyodorovich Romanov) 22 July O. 12 July 1596 23 July O. 13 July 1645 became the first Russian Tsar of the house of Romanov after the zemskiy sobor of 1613 elected him to rule the Tsardom of Russia.He was the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov (later known as Patriarch Filaret) and of Xenia (later known as "the great nun " Martha). Michael's grandfather, Nikita, was brother to the earlier Tsarina Anastasia and a central advisor to Ivan the Terrible. As a young boy, Michael and his mother had been exiled to Beloozero in 1600. This was a result of the recently elected Tsar Boris Godunov , in 1598, falsely accusing his father, Feodor, of treason. This may have been partly because Feodor had married Ksenia Shestova against Boris' wishes. Michael was unanimously elected Tsar of Russia by a national assembly on 21 February 1613, but the delegates of the council did not discover the young Tsar and his mother at the Ipatiev Monastery near Kostroma until 24 March. He had been chosen after several other options had been removed, including royalty of Poland and Sweden. Initially, Martha protested, believing and stating that her son was too young and tender for so difficult an office, and in such a troublesome time. The weeping boyars solemnly declared that if he persisted in his refusal, they would hold him responsible to God for the destruction of Russia. Michael eventually consented to accept the throne. Michael's election and accession to the throne form the basis of the Ivan Susanin legend, which Russian composer Mikhail Glinka dramatized in his opera A Life for the Tsar. In so dilapidated a condition was the capital at this time that Michael had to wait for several weeks at the Troitsa monastery , 75 miles (121 km) off, before decent accommodation could be provided for him at Moscow. He was crowned on 22 July 1613.
The first task of the new tsar was to clear the land of the countries occupying it. Sweden and Poland were then dealt with respectively by the peace of Stolbovo (17 February 1617) and the Truce of Deulino (1 December 1618). The most important result of the Truce of Deulino was the return from exile of the tsar's father, who henceforth took over the government till his death in October 1633, Michael occupying quite a subordinate position. Painting by Grigory Ugryumov of the 16-year-old Mikhail being offered the crown at the Ipatiev Monastery in 1613. Tsar Michael suffered from a progressive leg injury (a consequence of a horse accident early in his life), which resulted in his not being able to walk towards the end of his life.
He was a gentle and pious prince who gave little trouble to anyone and effaced himself behind his counsellors. Sometimes they were relatively honest and capable men like his father; sometimes they were corrupted and bigoted, like the Saltykov relatives of his mother.
He was married twice, first to Princess Maria Vladimirovna Dolgorukova in 1624, who died four months after the marriage the next year, and then in 1626 to Eudoxia Streshneva (16081645), who brought him 10 children. Michael's failure to wed his daughter Irene of Russia with Count Valdemar Christian of Schleswig-Holstein , a morganatic son of King Christian IV of Denmark , in consequence of the refusal of the latter to accept Orthodoxy , so deeply afflicted him as to contribute to bringing about his death on 12 July 1645. The two government offices (prikazes) that were most important politically were Posolsky Prikaz ("Foreign Office") and Razryadny Prikaz (a Duma chancellery and a personnel department for both central and provincial administration including military command). Those offices could be pivotal in struggles between Boyar factions, so they were traditionally headed not by Boyars but by dyak (professional clerks). The first head of the Posolsky Prikaz under Michael was Pyotr Tretyakov until his death in 1618; he conducted policy of allying with Sweden against Poland.
The next one, Ivan Gramotin had a reputation of a Poloniphile; this appointment was necessary to bring forth Filaret's release from captivity. In mid-20s Filaret began preparations for war with Poland; Gramotin fell in his disfavour and was fired and exiled in 1626. The same fate was shared by Efim Telepnev in 1630 and Fedor Likhachov in 1631 - they too tried to soothe Filaret's belligerent approach. Ivan Gryazev , appointed in 1632, was promoted from second ranks of bureaucracy to fulfill Filaret's orders.
After Filaret's and Gryazev's deaths the post was once again assumed by Gramotin in 1634, and after the latter's retirement in 1635, by Likhachov, with general course on pacification. Razryadny Prikaz was first headed by Sydavny Vasilyev ; Filaret replaced him by his fellow in captivity Tomilo Lugovskoy , but the latter somehow caused Filaret's anger and was exiled. In 1623 Fedor Likhachov was made head of Prikaz till his shift to Posolsky Prikaz, and in 1630 Razryad was given to Ivan Gavrenev , an outstanding administrator who took up this post for 30 years. Three other strategic offices were Streletsky Prikaz (in charge of streltsy regiments who served as Moscow garrison), Treasury (Prikaz bolshoy kazny), and Aptekarsky Prikaz ("Pharmacy office", in fact ministry of health, most particularly the tsar's health).
After Filaret's arrival their former heads were sent away from Moscow, and all three given to Ivan Cherkassky (Filaret's nephew), who proved to be an able and competent administrator and was a de facto prime minister till his death in 1642. Fedor Sheremetev who had succeeded to all Cherkassky's posts was a rather weak figure; the real power was in the hands of a court marshal, Alexey Lvov. Nikolay II, Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov 18 May. 1868 17 July 1918 was the last Tsar of Russia , Grand Duke of Finland , and titular King of Poland. His official title was Nicholas II, Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias and he is currently regarded as Saint Nicholas the Passion-Bearer by the Russian Orthodox Church.
Nicholas II ruled from 1894 until his abdication on 15 March 1917. His reign saw Imperial Russia go from being one of the foremost great powers of the world to an economic and military disaster.
Critics nicknamed him Bloody Nicholas because of the Khodynka Tragedy , Bloody Sunday , and the anti-Semitic pogroms that occurred during his reign. Under his rule, Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War. As head of state, he approved the Russian mobilization of August 1914, which marked the first fatal step into World War I and thus into the demise of the Romanov dynasty less than four years later. Nicholas II abdicated following the February Revolution of 1917 during which he and his family were imprisoned first in the Alexander Palace at Tsarskoye Selo , then later in the Governor's Mansion in Tobolsk , and finally at the Ipatiev House in Yekaterinburg. Nicholas II, his wife, his son, his four daughters, the family's medical doctor, the Tsar's valet, the Empress' lady-in-waiting and the family's cook were all executed in the same room by the Bolsheviks on the night of 16/17 July 1918.This led to the canonization of Nicholas II, his wife the Empress and their children as martyrs by various groups tied to the Russian Orthodox Church within Russia and, prominently, outside Russia. A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon or on a surcoat or tabard used to cover and protect armour and to identify the wearer.
Thus the term is often stated as "coat-armour", because it was anciently displayed on the front of a coat of cloth. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which consists of shield, supporters, crest and motto. The design is a symbol unique to an individual person, and to his family, corporation, or state.
Such displays are commonly called armorial bearings , armorial devices , heraldic devices , or simply armorials or arms. Historically, armorial bearings were first used by feudal lords and knights in the mid-12th century on battlefields as a way to identify allied from enemy soldiers. As the uses for heraldic designs expanded, other social classes who never would march in battle began to assume arms for themselves.
Initially, those closest to the lords and knights adopted arms, such as persons employed as squires that would be in common contact with the armorial devices. Then priests and other ecclesiastical dignities adopted coats of arms, usually to be used as seals and other such insignia, and then towns and cities to likewise seal and authenticate documents.Eventually by the mid-13th century, peasants, commoners and burghers were adopting heraldic devices. The widespread assumption of arms led some states to regulate heraldry within their borders. However, in most of continental Europe, citizens freely adopted armorial bearings. Despite no widespread regulation, and even with a lack in many cases of national-level regulation, heraldry has remained rather consistent across Europe, where traditions alone have governed the design and use of arms. Unlike seals and other general emblems , heraldic achievements have a formal description called a blazon , expressed in a jargon that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the 21st century, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals; for example, universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, and protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that also aid in the design and registration of personal arms, and some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain to this day the mediæval authorities that grant and regulate arms.
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This item is in the category "Coins & Paper Money\Coins\ World\Europe\Russia\Empire (up to 1917)". The seller is "highrating_lowprice" and is located in Rego Park, New York. This item can be shipped worldwide.